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Visualization of monolayer films can now easily be performed using the KSV NIMA BAM or MicroBAM that employ the technique of Brewster Angle Microscopy to detect changes in the refractive index of the water surface in the presence of surfactand molecules. This is useful in determining the homogeinity of compressed monolayer films, domain sizes, shapes and packaging behavior. Brewster Angle Microscopes can be used in conjunction with a Langmuir Trough to examine film domain structure evolution with time and at various surface pressures. The rigidity of a monolayer material can also be determined from imaging of compressed films during expansion to larger confinement areas.


  • Phase behavior of monolayers (e.g. domain size, shape and packing) 
  • Compressed film homogeneity 
  • Influence of subphase conditions on monolayer structures (e.g. salts, pH, temperature…) 
  • Phase separation in monolayers and thin films 
  • Real-time monitoring of photochemical reactions 
  • Real-time monitoring of polymerization reactions 
  • Detection of surface active materials 
  • Gibbs adsorption layers